Scientific-theoretical basics of ecological education for the future teachers

April 03, 2013, автор tim0

Kaldybaeva Zh.B
Master’s Degree in ecology, teacher,
Kazakh National Pedagogical
University named after Abai, c.Almaty

Kaldibaeva2Today ecology is a one part of science with scientific-theoretical and practical importance. Ecological science is a scientific-theoretical basis of using ecology. It can be achieved by using of the right way of giving the knowledge and education for young people. From historical point of view it was the main problem of humanity in natural and social environment.

The main principles of comprehensive system look like to deepen ecological education, to give an ecological upbringing, to form an ecological culture of future teachers, to prepare highly skilled specialists.

Analyzing the theoretical basis of ecological education we determined its scientific systems (aim, task, principles) which were founded on world experience and our Republic’s socio-economical and natural politics.

Comparing with other countries our responsibility, consciousness, awareness to ecology, customs and traditions are less. That is why it is very important to form common view and ecological education of people. We took into consideration all these problems and included in our research by identifying all aspects of ecological education.

We came to such kind of conclusion that ecological education is integrated collection of sciences. And ecological knowledge is a process of continuous teaching of ecological aspects In order to form person’s responsibility to ecology, ecological knowledge, upbringing and culture.

Its purpose is not only to teach future teachers to love and protect nature, also to bring up them as fighters for saving our nature.

E.С.Slastenina identified that future teachers should be trained in the following spheres: socio-political, psychological and pedagogical.[2]
Most important in the process of specialists training is educational work.

In ecology rather than in other sciences, there are some debate on content, methods and tasks. During the last years there were some discussions on this theme, but there still exist some problems and questions.

Earlier organism was learned and studied in biological science separately from environment, and an appearance of ecology is filled that gaps in biology research. It is very important to study the historical-theoretical basis of ecology, to know methods and forms of training, to know and understand the content, aim and tasks of study.

Emphasizing interaction of ecology with other biological disciplines, we can pick out its qualitative specifics which are not taken into account. That’s why it is necessary to emphasize one of the main points of dialectical materialism: scientific knowledge should set (establish) qualitative determination of studied phenomenon, exactly to reveal theirs specifics.

Jorgensen B.G picks out the following specifics of ecology:
- the subject of research
- the general tasks of research
- the methods of research
- the main idea
- the character of work of specialists in ecology
- the interaction of ecological research and practical experience. [2]

Scientists think that it is not allowed to recognize determination of ecology as a science of adaptations (Paramonova, 1933), as a science of fight for existence among organisms (Seversov, 1937), and e.t.c.

According to these determinations we can see only separate specifications of ecology, but not the main idea. There is no full sense of ecology as a science of relations between organisms and environment. (Geakhkel, 1866, Kamkarov, 1934 and others)

We can give an evaluation of determination of ecological science in chronological order. Taking into account that there are about 100 determinations in scientific materials, we tried to choose the most typical.
Geakhkel (1866):“Ecology is a study about attitude of animals to organic and no organic environment, including their attitude to other animals and plants with which they have a direct contact”.

Elton Ch. (1930):“The main task of ecology is a study of association of organisms and dynamics of their numbers”.(1954)
“Ecology as a biological discipline, which studies interaction of organisms with environment, their style of living, reproducing, feeding, survivals and number of animals”.

Frederick (1958):“Ecology is a science of living creature as a member of natural complex”.

Odum E (1963): “Ecology is a science of structure of environment”.
Louise T and Taylor L (1966): “Ecology is a science of reactions of individuals for environmental change.

Jorgensen B.G and Igolkin I (1970): “Ecology is a general biological science of interaction of environment and organisms. [3]

The best structure of modern ecological science is included in fundamental research of Reamers N.F. In this classification “ecology” vertically is divided into (generally 79 branches): general ecology, bioecology, geoecology, cosmo ecology, and horizontally into ecological effects (internal and external).

The whole process of ecological system in socio-economical sphere is connected with metabolism, energy and information transferring. Because it is clear that the function of ecosystem is based on them and we can differentiate the followings:
Isolated system (metabolism is not possible)
Cloistered system (metabolism is not possible, but energy transferring is possible in any form)
Open system (metabolism and energy transferring is possible)

Some authors recognize only 4 laws of Commoner B., some of them include to these 4 laws one more, law of tolerant (Shelford B – Шелфорд Б) and other scientists count about 55 (Gorelov A.A), sometimes about 360 (Reamers N.F – Реймерс). N.F.Reamers divides laws of ecology by separate themes and ecological processes. These 4 laws of American scientist Commoner (1974) can carry out independent ecological function in teaching. And these laws are dialectical-fundamental laws of nature. [4]

Commoner explains “notion of laws is one step of knowledge of people and understanding the unity, interaction and value of world process’’.[5]

We regard ecological education as interaction between teacher and students, as the result of the formation of ecological knowledge and skills is based on future teachers’ work study. Teacher forms knowledge and skills of student under the didactical conditions and gives him information, takes the role of helper and controls the situations.

Modern science needs in highly qualified specialists in ecology. It is possible to realize it by giving the general pedagogical knowledge and skills for students.

Ecological education is a part of educational process, because it has interaction with economical and social factors. Ecological education should follow continuously, consecutively and professionally steps. The process of ecological education should follow an integrated approach in order to create ecological culture and philosophy of life of students. The main aim of ecological education is familiarization of young teachers with ecological science, their professional development.


Болашақ мұғалімдерге экологиялық білім берудің ғылыми-теориялық негіздері
Қалдыбаева Жанар Біржанқызы, экология магистрі, оқытушы

Мақалада экологиялық заңдылықтар мен классикалық түсініктер негізінде экологиялық білім берудің ғылыми және тарихи-теориялық негіздері қарастырылады. Экологияның өзіндік ерекшеліктері көрсетіледі. Оларға сүйене отырып, болашақ мұғалімді дайындауда экологиялық білімдер мен біліктер қалыптасады.


Научно-теоретические основы экологического образования
для будущих учителей
Калдыбаева Жанар Биржановна, магистр экологии, преподаватель

В статье рассматриваются научные и историко-теоретические основы экологического образования на основе классических аппаратных понятий и экологических закономерностей. Выделены специфические отличия экологии. Опираясь на них в подготовке будущего учителя, формируются экологические знания и умения.

Used literature

1. Сластенина Е.С. Экологическое образование в подготовке учителя//
Вопросы теории. – М.:Педагогика, 1984, – 104 с.
2. Иоганзен Б.Г. О подготовке студентов на всех факультетах педагогического института к работе по охране природы в школе. В кн.:Краеведение и охрана природы, А.:1974.–73-84с.
3. Очерки по истории экологии. – М.: Наука, 1970, – 292 с.
4. Акимова Т.А., Хаскин В.В. Экология. Учебник для вузов.-М.:Юнити,1998. – 445 с.
5. Коммонер Б. Замыкающийся круг:природа, человек, технология. –Л.:Гидрометеоиздат, 1974. – 280 с.


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