Politics of national security of the republic of Kazakhstan in the context of social and interfaith relations

April 02, 2013, автор tim0

Zhandossova Sholpan
PhD candidate at the al-Farabi Kazakh National University

Security of the country may be considered guaranteed if it is provided as an «outside» and «inside». In this section we study the problem of social security policy, demographic development, interethnic and interfaith relations.

Zhandossova2According to B.S. Zhusipov «to the number of adverse factors that increase the possibility of social unrest are ethnic, religious composition of the population, the level of culture and education, health index, the degree of criminality, and other factors. By the intellectual and spiritual impoverishment of the nation was added and the physical degradation of the people due to the deterioration of health of disadvantaged social and environmental conditions, the collapse of health and physical education, etc.» [1].

For Kazakhstan, like many states, Social Security takes no less important than the military. President N.Nazarbayev spoke about this quite clearly: «the decline in industrial production, unemployment and impoverishment of millions of people in post-Soviet states could lead to the socio-political disintegration will become unmanageable. In this case, the scattered fragments of a mosaic of armed conflict may constitute a single whole, a great arc of instability and in Kazakhstan itself, especially outside there are real forces that are interested in, so that any accidental spark flashed on ethnic grounds, to ignite a bloody fire fratricidal war» [2].

Safeguarding national security within the country due to political legitimization of state power, to ensure public confidence in reforms in the country. In our opinion no external threat can not be neutralized as long as the action goes on inside the country criminalist’s destructive tendencies.

Rights K.S Gadjiyev when he says, «… that the cause of the collision will be the decisive difference in the level of socio-economic development» [3]. While the gap between rich and poor is widening, it is extremely dangerous because it makes a real threat of civil war.

According to B.S. Zhusipov «In the former totalitarian regime exaggerated emphasis on military production areas, the army and weapons to the detriment of civil proceedings, to the detriment of social, cultural and other programs of the country’s development» [4]. Thus, the protective concept that existed in the former Soviet Union is not only dangerous from the standpoint of balance of power – it is counter-productive, focused on the closed society, and therefore preserves its backwardness. Difficulties, left a legacy, as well as shortcomings of the subjective and objective character still continue to affect the politics of Social Security of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The law «On national security of the Republic of Kazakhstan» one of the most important principles is «mutual responsibility of the individual, society and the State» (Article 3, paragraph 5). In this Law (article 16 paragraph 1) «The Republic of Kazakhstan in accordance with national legislation and international agreements ensures the safety of every person and citizen in its territory. Citizens of Kazakhstan, located outside the Republic of Kazakhstan, the state guarantees the protection and patronage» [5].

The main objective in the social sector – policy formulation and implementation of an integrated approach to solving the legal, economic, social and ethno-political problems. In the economic sphere, as noted by President N.Nazarbayev, «entrepreneurship is the sphere of activity, which depends on the success of reforms in many areas. Businesses today represent the most advanced part of our society, and regardless of the extent of capital and scope of his powers are the result of the policy and the driving force for progress in our society, the success of ongoing reforms in our country» [6].

In our literature developed indices of integrated indicators of social tension in society that are «characterized by six significantly different from each other’s levels, up to a social explosion» [7].

The first – a favorable condition. Ideally, this is enough food, actively address social issues, the confidence of people in the future, a stable functioning government structures.
The second – Satisfactory condition – characterized by a single transient phenomenon associated with the deteriorating situation in one of the areas of public life, and passing, when the crisis is resolved or the conflict is settled. All this occurs against the backdrop of yet hidden from external observers did not increase overall satisfaction. This unorganized form of expression of dissatisfaction, concern over the violations of proliferating the usual course of things.

The third – the state of stress – occurs when the crisis had not yet manifested in a very naked when she is not clearly perceived confrontation. It occurs usually when most people in the region feels the first, and then realizes that meet their social, economic, political, national, cultural, religious and vital needs, interests and rights are threatened. For this stage is characterized by the emergence of foci of a sharp rise in tensions in some regions.

Fourth – the crisis – a crisis of individual levels and management levels. The tension is evident not only in public sentiment, but in mass action: in high demand, buying goods and food products «with a stock of» forced and voluntary migration of large masses in the other regions, the revitalization of social and political movements of various directions, natural and organized Demonstrations, rallies, strikes and other forms of civil disobedience.

Fifth – critical – it is a crisis of social and political system as a whole. Dissatisfaction with financial situation and economic situation is transferred to the ratio of the existing structures of power evaluation of governing political bodies. Manifestations and consequences of regime crisis, its development unpredictable.

Sixth – catastrophic – is the complete destruction of all power structures, the overthrow by force the existing political order, anarchy and lawlessness right.
As you can see, each of these levels is fundamentally different from each other and has their own characteristic features. Obviously, the more tense the situation, the greater the discomfort felt the bulk of the population, the more it shows a sense of confusion and depression.

In our time the imperfections of the laws of their mechanisms of implementation, lack of confidence is very much part of the people in the possibility of change, consumer protection and low volatility of most people, hostility (aggression, conflict, discrimination, etc.) is inevitable, no matter what the psychological and social factors influence this phenomenon – the internal, motivational, or personality characteristics of individuals, human or social environment, an objective conflict of interests between social groups, etc.
The policy of social security of society and the state should focus on creating an effective system to counteract to provide protection for the interests of the individual, society and state.
In the process of historical development of Kazakhstan gained shape culture – ethnic education, which synthesized the Slavic and Turkic, Orthodox and Muslim origin.
Security policy in the context of a specific power of the state changes over time. In assessing the power of the international factors of technology, education and economic growth are becoming more important, while the location and availability of raw materials lose their value. As noted in our work Nursultan Nazarbayev in his work «The Strategy of the formation and development of Kazakhstan as a sovereign state» on the planet yet «… there are serious contradictions of economic, territorial, religious, ethnic and other nature that may lead to armed conflicts affecting the interests of Kazakhstan».

As rightly says N.Zh. Baitenova «… Today the threat comes from within more due to the socio – economic crises, political and ethnic instability, as evidenced by recent developments in foreign countries and in neighboring countries (Tajikistan, Russia). So now the becomes more urgent question of preserving internal peace and interethnic harmony» [8].

The country for the stability of inter-ethnic relations is a policy point of contact, expanding zones of the consent and trust among nations through the Assembly of Peoples of Kazakhstan and the national cultural centers. All this work is carried out to achieve many goals: the development of the languages of all nations of Kazakhstan, to improve the system of national education, improvement of the national media, strengthening of legal mechanisms to protect the national culture.

Despite what is being done in the Republic of Kazakhstan for national security and inter-ethnic harmony is evidence of ideas of radical Islam, as well as revitalization of the non-traditional Christian denominations. In confirmation of this can result in the facts of the reference book «Religion in Kazakhstan», edited by J.F. Trofimov and V.A. Ivanov, «On the existence of Islamic extremism in Kazakhstan shows, in particular, the detention in October 2000 in the Southern Kazakhstan region of four members underground religious – political organization Hizb ut-Tahrir, distributing leaflets calling for the establishment of an Islamic Caliphate» [9]. It also identified a number of facts «… teaching the citizens of Kazakhstan in foreign clerical centers that preach Islamic radicalism. For the return to the Republic of treatment and attempts to involve young people in various activities of foreign political parties and extremist movements» [10]. Hence arises the implementation of policies in the light of the circumstances connected with the spread of ideas of radical Islamic fundamentalism and various clerical structures of extremist.

With regard to policy toward religion in recent years, a great variety of opinions and views, not all of which can be considered progressive. For example, a prominent scholar of Kazakhstan A. Mashanov fought for the religious education of the younger generation, arguing that «in our Koran contains both science and philosophy. Need to change all the textbooks on the basis of the Quran … If the school principal would be an imam, and holding a Koran – was would be even better» [11]. However, the policy must take into account the far-reaching consequences of such extremes.

In this regard, S. Myrzali writes that «the time demands of modernization. At a time when millions of people turned their attention to religion in search of spiritual – moral foundations of its existence, the policy challenge is to recognize this fact and implement the country’s principle of freedom of conscience at the same time do not forget that both Islam and Christianity, along with positive spiritual – moral intentions, there are principles of «jihad» and words of Christ that «brought not peace but a sword» [12]. This statement by our opinion right.

Religious political parties, whose aim is to build an Islamic state in Central Asia emerged as the Union Branch of the Party of Islamic Renaissance, including Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, in the late 90s in the wake of general liberalization.

You can not ignore the fact that some force in international affairs would like to use the Islamic factor as a strategy for future expansion in the Central Asian states, including Kazakhstan, as they claim.

Religion in Kazakhstan is separated from the government, so public education can not be put to the formation of religious consciousness. You can only talk only about the knowledge of the history of world religions. Religion is an integral component of spirituality of the people, without the knowledge of religious values that have a moral and aesthetic values, knowledge of the people is incomplete, deficient. Moreover, the knowledge of world religions shows common moral aspirations, spiritual quest, and aesthetic standards of many people in Kazakhstan, living in our state.

Despite the fact that the Constitution proclaimed secular character of the Republic of Kazakhstan, at times in our press voices on the construction of the religion of Islam to the status of the state phenomenon, the introduction of teaching of the Koran in schools. The media heads of religious denominations among the associations is given priority.
«Revival of Islam in sovereign Kazakhstan takes place as an important part of national and spiritual revival, and no more», – writes U. Kasenov. Therefore, he argues, there is no «good cause, to predict the emergence of the so-called» Islamic threat «in Kazakhstan».

Policy to regulate the relations of public policy with different faiths is very difficult. As noted by A. Umnov, «Islam – is a constant interaction between the two trends, people, customs and traditions of enshrining in the community, families, clans, regions, and theological, cementing the unity of the local society and regulating its relationship with the state» [13].

Currently in the domestic sphere of Kazakhstan’s national interests are to ensure civil peace and national accord, territorial integrity and unity of legal space, the stability of the state government and its institutions, law and order and to complete the process of establishing a democratic society, as well as to neutralize the causes and conditions conducive to the emergence of social, ethnic and religious conflicts, ethnic separatism. Must be active on the need to protect the country from the onslaught of fundamentalist, extremist movements that destroy our national values, endanger the security of the country.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Nazarbayev N.A. In the stream of history. – Almaty: Atamura, 1999. P.296.
2. Нуруллаев А.А. Ислам и национализм // Религия и национализм. – М., 2000. С.256.
3. Конституция Республики Казахстан. Алматы: Казахстан, 1995.
4. Мейрманов Ж. Сохранить согласие и стабильность/ Общенациональная ежедневная газета Республики Казахстан ОАО Республиканская газета «Казахстанская правда», №32,18 февраля 2004.
5. Иванов В.А., Трофимов Я.Ф. Религии в Казахстане: Справочник. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – Алматы: Аркаим, 2003 С.238.
6. Амирова А. А. Диалог конфессий – важный фактор укрепления стабильности в Казахстане /Центр внешней политики и анализа. Внутренняя политика Казахстана. www.cvi.kz.
7. Артемьев А.И. Религия в реалиях казахстанского общества, или к вопросу о духовном согласии и свободе совести // Саясат. -1999 С.38.
8. Костюк К.Н. Православный фундаментализм // Полис. -2000 С.46.
9. Новак А., Харизматическое движение. Свет на Востоке, 1995 С.32.
10. Шпекбаев А., Противодействие вызовам и угрозам XXI века Известия Казахстан – Материалы номера № 50(1079) 6 марта 2006 www.izvestia.kz
11. Trofimov J. Geopolitical aspects of the dynamics of religious change in the situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan / Religion and Media, September 22, 2003. www.religare.ru.
12. Larry S.M. Western civilization through the eyes of Muslims. Baku. 1992. P.386.
13. Masse A. Islam. M. 1962.P.258.

Резюме

В данной статье анализируется политика национальной безопасности Республики Казахстан в контексте социальных и межконфессиональных отношений.

Түйін

Аталған мақалада әлеуметтік және конфессияаралық қатынастар аясындағы Қазақстан Республикасының ұлттық қауіпсіздік саясаты сарапталынады.
Жандосова Шолпан Мулькимановна докторант 1-го года обучения специальности «6D050200-Политология» факультета философии и политологии Казахского национального университета имени аль-Фараби (Алматы, Казахстан).

E-mail: sholpan_zhandosova@mail.ru

Мобильный телефон: 8 777 383 63 58

  • Zhandossova2
Sociology

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